Habitat: Along watercourses, and on open or wooded, moist or dry areas from the plains into the lower mountains.
General: Shrub or small tree, 1-10 m. tall, some of the branches sharp-pointed, the bark deep brownish-purple.
Leaves: Leaves alternate, deciduous, the petioles stout, pubescent, 5-12 mm. long, the blades lanceolate to elliptic, acuminate, acute at the base, serrate, glabrous, often hairy beneath, 4-10 cm. long.
Flowers: Flowers 2-4 in umbels, the pedicels slender; calyx reddish tinged, the 5 lobes 2.5-3.5 mm. long, about equal to the tube, pubescent on the upper surface, oblong-lanceolate, serrulate; petals 5, white, elliptic-oblong, 7-9 mm. long; stamens about 25; pistil 1, simple.
Fruit: Drupe orange to purplish-red, the flesh yellow, 1.8-2.5 cm. long.
WATER BIRCH (BETULA OCCIDENTALIS)
Mature Height 20' - 30'
A deciduous large shrub or small tree that blooms mid-spring with yellow flowers and brown fruit. The wood is heavy, often used for fence posts and firewood. This shade tree is usually found in moist to wet soils. It is commonly used in riparian buffers to help control erosion.
BLACK HAWTHORN (CRATAEGUS DOUGLASII)
Mature Height 20' - 30'
Black Hawthorn is a deciduous shrub with globe-shaped flowers that grow in clusters and produce berry-sized fruit that are reddish-purple to black. The berries can be eaten raw or cooked for use in pies, jams and jellies. It grows best in full sunlight with adequate moisture.
Wildlife Benefit: This is a wonderful wildlife shrub, as it provides food and ample cover in its thorny thickets.
CHOKECHERRY (PRUNUS VIRGINIANA)
Mature Height 10'-15'
Chokecherry is a deciduous, hardy shrub that grows rapidly. It bears white clustered flowers that later produce dark purple fruit that is excellent food for birds and is great in pies and jellies. The dense growth makes the chokecherry a good species in windbreaks. Prefers sun, but tolerates partial shade. Average water needs. Grows well in sandy soils.
Wildlife Benefit: The fruit is a prime source of food for chipmunks and many songbirds in the fall.
MOCKORANGE (PHILADELPHUS LEWISII)
Mature Height 6'-10'
Description: Mockorange is known for its very fragrant and showy flowers. Although somewhat drought tolerant, Mockorange prefers regular watering. This deciduous shrub is often used on banks to stabilize soils. It is a great wildlife shrub and works well in urban landscaping.
Wildlife Benefit: Chipmunks and birds eat the seeds.
SERVICEBERRY (AMELANCHIER ALNIFOLIA)
Mature Height 6'-10'
This is a large, mounded deciduous shrub. The many white flowers that bloom April through May make it a showy ornamental. Edible fruit similar to a blueberry attracts wildlife. Serviceberry is very drought tolerant and requires little care.
Wildlife Benefit: The fruit is prized by birds, bears, and chipmunks and the foliage is browsed by deer, moose, and elk.
TALL OREGON GRAPE (MAHONIA)
Mature Height: 3-5'
Tall Oregon grape is a sprawling shrub with holly-like leaflets and bright yellow flowers that produce a dark purple fruit. The fruit is edible but sour and is often used in making juice, jelly and wine. It prefers rocky soil, is drought-tolerant, and does well in partial to full shade.
BLUE ELDERBERRY (SAMBUCUS CERULEA)
A small deciduous shrub or small tree, 1'-50' tall, it is fast-growing and spreading but can be controlled by pruning. Blooms with white or creamy flowers in flat-topped clusters in April throughout August, leading clusters of blue or red berries from August throughout October. The berries are edible by humans as well as providing food for birds, deer, and elk. Conservation uses include habitat and stream bank restoration.
Habitat: Elderberries are widespread, found in a variety of well-drained soils, and can do well in full sun to partial shade. Take cuttings from June to July, clean seeds in fall. Plant cuttings 4 or more feet apart.
LOW OREGON GRAPE (MAHONIA NERVOSA)
Growing ease: Medium
Moisture req.: dry - moist
Exposure req.: part shade - shade
Description: This is the short cousin to Tall Oregon Grape and is better used as a ground cover (generally 2 foot in height) planted either singly or in masses. It looks great combined with native snowberry above and through the glossy green massed leaves. Tolerant of many conditions, it will do its best in some shade and can tolerate full shade. Clustered yellow flowers with purple fruits. The Creeping Oregon Grape is similar but generally lower to the ground and used more as a ground cover than a shrub.
CARAGANA (CARAGANA ARBORESCENS)
Mature Height 15"
Caragana is also known as Siberian Peashrub. This deciduous shrub is highly adaptable as a windbreak, an ornamental border, and can be pruned into a formal hedge. Works well for soil stabilization on easily eroded sites. Caragana produces yellow flowers in May that develop into pea pods in summer. It is tolerant of dry conditions and alkaline soils. A great wildlife habitat shrub.
Wildlife Benefit: The yellow, pea-like flowers are a favorite of hummingbirds. Birds, including pheasant, quail, juncos, and chukars,eat the "peas" that form later.
OCEANSPRAY (HOLODISCUS DISCOLOR)
Growing ease: High
Moisture req.: dry - moist
Exposure req.: sun - shade
Description: Oceanspray is an under-utilized plant in northwest gardens. It does exceedingly well on dry slopes and at the edge of deciduous forests of alder and cascara. It can also stand alone as a feature plant in a garden (best as a big, fountain like cluster), or at the back of a border. More tolerant of sun than many other natives, it can even survive on the edges of freeways without any extra watering. It does grow slower in full shade, but still survives well. The large, white to cream, lilac-like flower plumes are dazzling in late spring to early summer gardens. The flowers then turn a tan to brown color and last on the plant through winter.
NOOTKA ROSE (ROSA NUTKANA)
Growing ease: High
Moisture requirement: moist - wet
Exposure requirement: sun - part shade
Description: Attractive pink blooms, and large red fruit (hips) that persist in the winter. Covered with prickles, aggressive spreader.
WESTERN SAND CHERRY (PRUNUS BESSEYI)
Displays attractive, single, white flowers in May that are followed by an abundance of 3/4" purple-black sweet fruits that are used for preserves. This hardy rounded shrub has silver-green foliage and prefers a well-drained site. Sandcherry is fairly drought tolerant but prefers loamy type soils. It grows 5-6 feet in height and width, forming a rounded shape, and is a great shrub for farmstead windbreaks. Fruits are relished by many songbirds and is a nesting cover for a few species of songbirds. The fruits can be eaten fresh, dried, or processed as jellies and pies. Used in screen, hedge, or border plantings.
MACKENZIE WILLOW (SALIX RIGIDA MACKENZIEANA)
Mackenzie Willow grows into a medium sized multi-stem shrub. It can grow to over 12' tall and 15' wide. Mackenzie Willow is useful in streambank stabilization, riparian and wildlife habitat improvement, shelterbelts, and other uses requiring a moisture tolerant species..
Habitat: Mackenzie Willow was originally collected along the Tucannon River near Starbuck , Washington , at approximately 800 feet elevation. It was evaluated and selected at the NRCS Plant Materials Center in Pullman , WA . It has proven well suited throughout Eastern Washington , and prefers moist soils that are coarse to medium in texture.
WOODS ROSE (ROSA WOODSII)
Habitat: Valleys and hillsides at low elevations to forest openings at mid-elevations in the mountains.
General: Shrub 1-2 m. tall, more or less prickly or nearly unarmed, usually with well-developed, straight, slim, infrastipular prickles.
Leaves: Leaves alternate, deciduous, odd-pinnate with 5-9 leaflets; leaflets elliptic or obovate, wedge-shaped toward the base, up to 5 cm. long and 2.5 cm. wide, sharply serrate.
Flowers: Flowers fairly small, several in flat-topped inflorescences at the branch tips; sepals 5, 1-2 cm. long and 2-3.5 mm. wide at the base, persistent; petals 1.5-2.5 cm. long, light pink to deep rose; stamens numerous, and pistils many.
Fruit: Hips globose to ellipsoid, 6-12 mm. long, red.
NINEBARK (PHYSOCARPUS MALVACEUS)
Habitat: Canyons and hillsides, grasslands, ponderosa pine and Douglas fir forests
General: Spreading to erect shrub 0.5-2 m. tall, the branches angled, usually glabrous.
Leaves: Leaves alternate, petiolate, the blades ovate to cordate, 3-5 lobed, the lobes bi-serrate, 4-7 cm. long and broad, dark green and glabrous above and paler below, with stellate hairs.
Flowers: Flowers rather numerous in terminal clusters; calyx hemispheric, with stellate hairs, the 5 lobes ovate-lanceolate, 3 mm. long, somewhat reflexed; petals 5, white, sub-orbicular, 4 mm. long, spreading; stamens about 30, equaling the petals; pistils 2, attached to each other at least half way, strongly stellate-haired.
Fruit: Fruit a glabrous follicle, 7-11 mm. long, swollen.
BUFFALOBERRY (SHEPHERDIA CANADENSIS)
Habitat: Moderately dry, open to wooded areas, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
General: Unarmed, spreading shrub 1-4 m. tall; young twigs conspicuously brownish-scurfy; older branches brownish.
Leaves: Leaves opposite, entire, short-petiolate, the blades ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 1.5-6 cm. long and 1-3 cm. broad, greenish on the upper surface and white-scurfy beneath, but with many brownish scales.
Flowers: Plants dioecious, the flowers apetalous; staminate flowers brownish, with an 8-lobed disk in the throat of the calyx tube, the calyx with 4 spreading lobes 1-2 mm. long; stamens 8; pistillate flowers with the calyx tube enclosing the pistil, the 4 lobes short.
Fruit: Fruit ellipsoid, yellowish-red, fleshy.
THIMBLEBERRY (RUBUS PARVIFLORUS)
Habitat: Open to wooded, moist to dry areas, from sea level to subalpine mountain slopes
General: Erect, unarmed shrub, 0.5-2 m. tall, with stalked glands and gray, flaking bark.
Leaves: Leaf blades deeply cordate, palmately 5-lobed, 6-15 cm, long and somewhat broader, doubly dentate-serrate, usually glabrous; petioles with stalked glands; stipules membranous, lanceolate.
Flowers: Flowers 3-7 in terminal, flat-topped panicles; calyx pubescent, the 5 lobes spreading, ovate-oblong, 10-18 mm. long, tailed; petals 5, white, oblong- obovate, 1.5-2.5 cm. long; stamens and pistils numerous.
Fruit: Drupelets coherent, red, thimble-shaped, coming free from the receptacle.
SITKA MOUNTAIN ASH (SORBUS FITCHENSIS)
Habitat: Forest openings at mid- to high elevations in the mountains
General: Erect, deciduous, several-stemmed shrub 1-4 m. tall, the young growth reddish soft-hairy, the older bark grayish-red.
Leaves: Leaves pinnate; leaflets 7-11, dark green above and paler beneath, oblong-obovate, 2-5 cm. long, rounded at the tip, sharply serrate not more than + their length.
Flowers: Inflorescence a round-topped panicle, 15-80 flowered; calyx glabrous, obconic, the 5 lobes triangular; petals 5, white, rhombic to oval, 4-5 mm. long; stamens 15-20; carpels 4-5, the styles 2-3 mm. long.
Fruit: Fruit ellipsoid, fleshy, red but glaucous with a bluish cast, about 1 cm. long.
WHITE SPIREA (SPIREA BETULAFOLIA)
Habitat: Stream banks and open to wooded areas, sea level to high elevations in the mountains
General: Deciduous, nearly glabrous shrubs from strong rhizomes, the stems 2.5-6 dm. tall.
Leaves: Leaves alternate, ovate-oblong to obovate, 2-7 cm. long, coarsely and usually doubly serrate, dark green on the upper surface, paler on the lower.
Flowers: Inflorescence a flat-topped raceme 3-8 cm. broad; calyx glabrous, the tubular portion hemispheric, 1-1.5 mm. wide, the 5 lobes triangular; petals 5, dull white, often with a pinkish tinge, 2 mm. long; stamens 25-50; pistils 5, distinct, 1.5-2 mm. long.
Fruit: Follicles 3 mm. long, somewhat leathery, mostly glabrous.
BALTIC RUSH (JUNCUS BALTICUS)
Habitat: Wet places, often where saline or alkaline
General: Sturdy perennial with thick, wide-spreading rhizomes, the stems terete, smooth, up to 4 mm. thick at the base, 1.5-8 dm. tall.
Leaves: Basal sheaths bladeless or with a bristle-like blade less than 1 cm. long.
Flowers: Inflorescence apparently lateral, the involucral bract terete, erect, sharp-pointed, 5-20 cm. long; panicle highly variable, from subcapitate and 1 cm. long to diffuse and 15 cm. long; perianth greenish to dark brown, 4-5 mm. long, the outer 3 segments longer, pointed, the inner three obtuse; stamens 6.
Fruit: Capsule ovoid, equal to the inner tepals.
DRUMMONDS WILLOW (SALIX DRUMMONDIANA)
Drummonds Willow is a shrub with green foliage and yellow flowers of the genus Salix. It has a rapid growth rate and a height of 12 feet at maturity. It's duration is perennial which means it will grow year after year. It's active growth period is spring and summer, blooms during early spring and is somewhat tolerant of shade. Salix Drummondiana or Drummond's Willow's floral region is North America US Lower 48
Distinguishing Characteristics: Look for the typically densely hairy, silvery-gray foliage and involucre bracts; leaves are all basal.
COMMON LILAC (SYRINGA VULGARIS)
They are deciduous shrubs or small trees, ranging in size from 2–10 m tall, with stems up to 20–30 cm diameter. The leaves are opposite (occasionally in whorls of three) in arrangement, and their shape is simple and heart-shaped to broad lanceolate in most species, but pinnate in a few species (e.g. S. protolaciniata, S. pinnatifolia). The flowers are produced in spring, each flower being 5–10 mm in diameter with a four-lobed corolla, the corolla tube narrow, 5–20mm long; they are bisexual, with fertile stamens and stigma in each flower. The usual flower color is a shade of purple (often a light purple or lilac), but white, pale yellow and pink, and even a dark burgundy color are also found. The flowers grow in large panicles, and in several species have a strong fragrance. Flowering varies between mid spring to early summer, depending on the species. The fruit is a dry, brown capsule, splitting in two at maturity to release the two winged seeds.
RED OSIER DOGWOOD (CORNUS SERICEA)
A multi-stemmed shrub that grows to 15'. Produces white flowers that are borne in clusters; the fruit is a small white berry. In the fall the stems turn a bright red, which makes it colorful all year. Good for holding soil on steep banks and providing shade for fish. Its leaves and twigs are important winter browse for deer and elk; buds and fruit, as food for birds.
Habitat: Wide distribution in wet areas with moist soil. Grows well in flood plain areas and is good for holding soil on stream banks and for shade for fish. Mid to high elevations. Cuttings 2-3" branch tips, less than ¾" in diameter, taken late in summer. Propagation by seeds requires coed stratification after removal of pulp; cold storage from 30-60 days at 35-41 degrees; sow in ordinary loam to start. Plant 2" apart for cuttings; 4' apart for plants.
ROCKY MOUNTAIN MAPER (ACER GLABRUM)
Habitat: Moist woods from sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
General: Shrub or small tree 1-10 m. tall; stems glabrous, the bark grayish to reddish-purple.
Leaves: Leaves opposite, glabrous to sparsely glandular-puberulent, 2-14 cm. long and nearly as broad, cordate, palmately 3-5 lobed, coarsely serrate, paler on the lower surface.
Flowers: Plants monoecious to dioecious, staminate flowers with only rudiments of a pistil, but pistillate flowers with well-developed, though not always fertile, stamens; flowers about 8 mm. broad, in flat-topped clusters in the leaf axils; sepals usually 5; petals equal in size and number, or lacking; stamens usually 10, inserted on the outer edge of a lobed disk; styles and stigmas 2; ovary superior, 2-celled.
THINLEAF/MOUNTAIN ALDER (ALNUS INCANA)
Habitat: Moist places, streamside, low to high elevations
General: Monoecious, deciduous shrubs 2 to 10 m. tall, the bark grayish-brown to reddish, the new growth usually downy-puberulent.
Leaves: Leaves alternate, simple, the blades broadly elliptic to ovate-oblong, 3-7 cm. long, rounded at the base and usually obtuse at the tip, the margins wavy and denticulate, the upper surface green, often glabrous, the lower surface pale, usually pubescent.
Flowers: Catkins developing before the leaves on growth of the previous season; staminate catkins clustered, pendulous, 3-10 cm. long, the flowers consisting of 4 subsessile anthers; pistillate catkins cone-like, ellipsoid-ovoid, 9-13 mm. long, the peduncles stout, short.
Fruit: Nutlet thin-margined but without a true wing.
COYOTE WILLOW (SALIX EXIGUA)
Growth Characteristics: Coyote Willow usually forms a thicket with its long, slender stems, seldom exceeding 15 feet in height, but has been known to reach heights of 26 feet. It reproduces by seed and rhizomes (forming clones). Regeneration may also occur through broken pieces of stems and roots that are transported and deposited by floodwaters that later sprout. It is best suited for wet environments near streams, lakes, or ponds.
Flowers/Inflorescence: Inflorescences are caterpillar-like catkins, which are long spikes containing many small flowers.
SNOWBERRY (SYMPHORICARPOS ALBUS)
Habitat: Thickets and open slopes, lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains
General: Deciduous, erect, branching shrubs from rhizomes, the stems usually 1-2 m. tall, glabrous.
Leaves: Leaves opposite, elliptic or elliptic-ovate, entire or with a few, coarse, irregular teeth, 1.5-5 cm. long and 1-3.5 cm. wide; leaves on young, sterile shoots generally larger, glabrous and more irregular.
Flowers: Flowers in short, dense, sub-sessile, few-flowered racemes, terminal on the twigs and in the upper axils; corolla white to pink, entire, 5-7 mm. long and nearly as wide, densely hairy within, the 5 lobes as long to nearly as long as the tube; stamens 5; style 2-3 mm. long, glabrous; ovary 4-celled, inferior.
Fruit: Fruit berry-like, fleshy, with two seeds, ellipsoid, 1-1.5 cm. long, white.
GOLDEN CURRANT (RIBES AUREUM)
Golden Currant is what is known as a dual use species. That means that it is both a valuable ornamental species and a good conservation plant as well. Its qualities as an ornamental are all too obvious in April when it is in bloom. Established plants are covered with bright yellow flowers. Some flowers will have a slight reddish or purplish tinge. It also has attractive yellowish-green foliage that turns bright yellow in the fall. Golden Currant also has many attributes as a conservation species. The plant produces small berries that attract many species of birds and small mammals. The berries are also considered to be edible for people, but as with many members of this genus, the berries may prove to be quite tart. Golden Currant is also a good soil stabilizer for both up slope sites and damp bottom land areas.
Habitat: Golden Currant can be found growing in a variety of sites. It occurs from damp brushy sites to exposed rocky hill sides. It generally grows best with good sun light.
Spokane Conservation District / 509.535.7274 / 210 N. Havana St., Spokane, WA 99202