Trees

BLACK COTTONWOOD (TRICHOCARPA)
Mature Height: 30-100'

A deciduous tree that is the largest of the American poplars, the black cottonwood has dark green leaves. It provides food and cover for a variety of wildlife, such as deer, elk and beaver. It is adaptable to a variety of soils, but it prefers to be planted on moist areas and it grows best in full sun. The black cottonwood grows fast and should not be planted near buildings or high occupancy areas as it regularly sheds limbs as a mature tree.
CASCARA (RHAMNUS PURSHIANA)
Cascara typically grows as an upright tree, occasionally reaching 30 feet tall. It forms clusters of dark blue-black berries. The unusual leaves provide beautiful fall color.

Habitat: Cascara is adapted to grow in a wide range of conditions throughout its range at low to mid-elevations. It can be found growing in soils that range from wet to dry and sites that vary from shady to exposed. Most typically however, Cascara is found growing in moist soils, with some shade present.

Historical demand for Cascara bark as a medicinal laxative has resulted in a considerable reduction in the native Cascara population. It was once commonly found growing as a riparian species and is considered an outstanding species for riparian restoration. Its berries are a favorite food of several species of birds and leaves/stems provide browse for deer and elk.
MOUNTAIN ASH (SORBUS SCOPULINA)
Mature Height: 10-20'

A deciduous small tree or large shrub with glossy, dark green leaves the mountain ash has white bloom spikes followed by abundant, persistent glossy red to orange fruit that attracts birds. It provides excellent fall color. It prefers well-drained acidic soils.
PAPER BIRCH (PAPYRIFERA)
Mature Height: 50-60'

Paper birch is a fast-growing, deciduous tree with white paper-like bark. It is pyramidal in shape when young, but becomes oval to round as it ages. They have dark green ovate leaves that turn a showy yellow in the fall. They do best in full sun and on loamy or sandy soils near rivers, lakes and streams. They require moist soil and should be planted near water or irrigated frequently.
QUAKING ASPEN (POPULUS TREMULOIDES)
Mature Height 30' - 40'

Quaking aspen is a tall, narrow deciduous tree with light green, heart shaped leaves that flutter with the slightest breeze and turn a vibrant yellow in the fall. The bark is smooth and cream colored. Aspen thrive near streams and moist areas, so supplemental irrigation will be required if planted elsewhere. Best if planted in groups of three or more.

Wildlife Benefit: A valuable browse species for big game, a favorite of beaver, and often drilled for sap by red-naped sapsuckers.
LODGEPOLE PINE (PINUS CONTORTA LATIFOLIA)
Habitat: Dry montane forests, rocky balds, coastal bluffs and sand dunes, and sphagnum bogs.

General: Small tree 10-30 meters tall; crown rounded and billowy to narrow and straight.

Bark: Thin, to 2-2.5 cm thick; reddish brown to gray or black, furrowed or scaly.

Leaves: Needle-like, 3-6 cm long, in fascicles (groups) of 2 born alternately along stem.

Cones: Female cones 3-6 cm long, scales with sharply pointed tip; male pollen cones to 1 cm long, reddish-green.

Distinguishing Characteristics: The only pine in our area with normally 2 needles per fascicle; cones are spine-tipped. Pinus albicaulis can look similar in appearance, but has 5 needles per fascicle, cone scales without spiny tips, and grows at high elevations.
ENGLEMANN SPRUCE (PICEA ENGLEMANNII)
This spruce is a fairly large tree, 90-120' tall, 11/2-3' in diameter, forming a narrow pyramidal head. The needles, scattered singly, stand out from all sides of the twigs, and are 4-sided, 1-11/8" long, blue-green, with pointed tips, and marked on all sides by white rows of stomata. They give off a rank odor when crushed. Buds are conic, light brown, about 1/8" long, with slightly reflexed scales. The twigs are slender, yellowish-brown, partly hairy for a few years. Bark is reddish-brown, thin, and broken into large loose scales. It has a pendent cone, oblong- cylindric, 11/2-21/2" long, light chestnut brown and shiny at maturity; cone scales are ragged at the tips and papery. The wood is pale reddish-brown, light, and soft. It has not been used extensively as a lumber species, but is suitable for lumber or pulpwood.

Habitat: Engelmann Spruce is a slow-growing, shallow-rooted species found mostly in damp to wet bottoms in mountainous areas. At timberline, it is usually a prostrate shrub intermixed with whitebark pine and occasionally subalpine larch. It grows best on deep, rich, moist soils, from 1000-7000' elevation; at high altitudes the tree grows from 2-4' high. It can tolerate temperature extremes from -50-90 degrees Farenheit, even adapting to frost in any month.
DOUGLAS-FIR (PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII)
Mature Height 100-130'

A large evergreen tree with a compact, pyramidal habit. Soft, medium green needles. A valuable timber and Christmas tree, the Douglas-fir is also prized as a landscape plant for specimens or in mass planting. Locate where it can reach mature size. Provide partial shade as a young tree. Prefers a neutral to slightly acid, well-drained soil.

Wildlife Benefit: Seeds are eaten by many species of birds, including crossbills, nuthatches, and chickadees. Hawks and owls use it for roosting.
PONDEROSA PINE (PINUS PONDEROSA)
Mature Height 120-140'

The most common conifer in Spokane County. It is an important timber resource and wildlife habitat tree. This pine is very drought tolerant and easy to propagate on even the poorest soils. It is not recommended as a street tree in urban areas. Give it plenty of room to grow.

Wildlife Benefit: Ponderosa Pine provides excellent cover and nesting sites for many birds. Chipmunks, ground squirrels, and birds, including grosbeaks, chickadees, finches, siskins, crossbills, nuthatches, and turkeys will eat the seeds.
ROCKY MOUNTAIN JUNIPER (JUNIPERUS SCOPULORUM)
Mature Height: 30-40'

A large shrub, or small evergreen tree, it is narrow and conical in shape. It has thick branches, scale-like leaves, and bluish needles. It is good for screens, mass plantings and hedges. It is highly adaptable and tolerant of most conditions. It prefers well-drained soils and full sunlight.
WESTERN LARCH (LARIX OCCIDENTALIS)
Mature Height 140-180'

The Western Larch is a deciduous conifer. Often referred to as Tamarack, though many consider this a misnomer. The needles are lime green in the spring, darkening in the summer, and turning a golden color in the autumn before falling off. Larch grow best on moist sites and will need supplemental irrigation in this area. Use as a specimen or in a group with evergreens.
WESTERN RED CEDAR (THUJA PLICATA)
Mature Height 50-70'

A pyramidal evergreen with long-pointed, scale-like leaves in a glossy, dark green color. The wood of the Western redcedar has been used in roofing for shingles, shakes and decking. It can be used for hedges, screens and windbreaks.It prefers moist, deep soils, tolerates acidic soil conditions, and is very shade tolerant.
WESTERN WHITE PINE (PINUS MONTICOLA)
Mature Height 80-180'

Description: A tall and straight conifer, the Western white pine has dense blue-green needles that produce very large and long cylinder-shaped cones. It is an important timber species appreciated for its light and smooth wood. It does best in well-drained soils rich with nutrients and prefers full sunlight.
TWINBERRY (LORNICERA UTAHENSIS)
Habitat: Common in open woods at low to mid-elevations.

General: Deciduous, erect shrubs 0.5-4 m. tall, with gray, shaggy bark, the young twigs quadrangular.

Leaves: Leaves opposite, short-petiolate, elliptic-oblong to elliptic-ovate, pointed, 5-14 cm. long and 2-8 cm. wide, usually glabrous above and stiff-hairy below.

Flowers: Peduncles axillary with two pairs of conspicuous bracts at the summit, broad and green or purple-tinged, becoming purplish-red and spreading in fruit; flowers paired, closely subtended by the bracts; corolla yellow, sometimes tinged with red, glandular-pubescent, 1-2 cm. long, shortly and sub-equally lobed, with a short, thick spur at the base; stamens 5, ovary 3-celled, inferior.

Fruit: Fruit a shiny, black, globose berry 1 cm. thick.
BOX ELDER (ACER NEGUNDO)
Habitat: Occasionally escapes from cultivation, chiefly in disturbed areas or riparian zones.

General: Pale greenish tree up to 20 m. tall, the young branches glabrous to finely pubescent.

Leaves: Leaves trifoliate, the leaflets oblong-lanceolate to oblanceolate, coarsely few-toothed.

Flowers: Plant dioecious; staminate flowers in dense axillary clusters on slender pedicels 1-4 cm. long, sepals and stamens 4-5, petals and disk absent; pistillate flowers in axillary 6- to 15-flowered racemes, petals, disk, and staminal rudiments lacking; style 1, short, the stigmas elongate.

Fruit: Samaras pubescent, the wings divergent less than 90°.
DOUGLAS HAWTHORN (CRATAEGUS DOUGLASII)
Habitat: Moist to dry areas, lowlands to moderate elevations

General: Large shrubs or small trees, 1-6 m. tall, armed with stout, straight thorns 1-2 cm. long.

Leaves: Leaf blades obovate, tapered to the petiole, 3-6 cm. long and nearly as broad, weakly lobed, pubescent to glabrous on both surfaces.

Flowers: Flowers few in the leaf axils or terminal; calyx bell-shaped, the 5 lobes triangular, entire, reflexed, 1.5-2.5 mm. long; petals 5, white, orbicular, 5-7 mm. long; stamens 10, styles 5.

Fruit: Berry blackish, glabrous, about 1 cm. long.
DOUGLAS HAWTHORN (CRATAEGUS DOUGLASII)
Habitat: Moist to dry areas, lowlands to moderate elevations

General: Large shrubs or small trees, 1-6 m. tall, armed with stout, straight thorns 1-2 cm. long.

Leaves: Leaf blades obovate, tapered to the petiole, 3-6 cm. long and nearly as broad, weakly lobed, pubescent to glabrous on both surfaces.

Flowers: Flowers few in the leaf axils or terminal; calyx bell-shaped, the 5 lobes triangular, entire, reflexed, 1.5-2.5 mm. long; petals 5, white, orbicular, 5-7 mm. long; stamens 10, styles 5.

Fruit: Berry blackish, glabrous, about 1 cm. long.